Chapter 1 Lojban As We Mangle It In Lojbanistan: About This Book
1. What is Lojban?
Lojban (pronounced “LOZH-bahn”) is a constructed language. Previous versions of the language were called “Loglan” by Dr. James Cooke Brown, who founded the Loglan Project and started the development of the language in 1955.人工言語であるロジバンは、ログラン (創始者 James Cooke Brown ) が前身で あり、このプロジェクトは1955年にスタートした。
The goals for the language were first described in the open literature in the article “Loglan”, published in Scientific American, June, 1960."Loglan" という題名の記事が Scientific American に掲載された。
Made well-known by that article and by occasional references in science fiction (most notably in Robert Heinlein's novel The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress and computer publications.SF小説 The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress 等で言及される。
Loglan and Lojban have been built over four decades by dozens of workers and hundreds of supporters, led since 1987 by The Logical Language Group (who are the publishers of this book).1987年からは、Logical Language Group (LLG=この本の出版元) がロジバンの 開発を牽引している。
There are thousands of artificial languages (of which Esperanto is the best-known), but Loglan/Lojban has been engineered to make it unique in several ways. The following are the main features of Lojban:エスペラントをはじめ人工言語はたくさんあるが、ログラン／ロジバンには以 下のユニークな特長がある。
- Lojban is designed to be used by people in communication with each other, and possibly in the future with computers. - Lojban is designed to be neutral between cultures. - Lojban grammar is based on the principles of predicate logic. - Lojban has an unambiguous yet flexible grammar. - Lojban has phonetic spelling, and unambiguously resolves its sounds into words. - Lojban is simple compared to natural languages; it is easy to learn. - Lojban's 1300 root words can be easily combined to form a vocabulary of millions of words. - Lojban is regular; the rules of the language are without exceptions. - Lojban attempts to remove restrictions on creative and clear thought and communication. - Lojban has a variety of uses, ranging from the creative to the scientific, from the theoretical to the practical. - Lojban has been demonstrated in translation and in original works of prose and poetry.
2. What is this book?
This book is what is called a “reference grammar”. It attempts to expound the whole Lojban language, or at least as much of it as is understood at present.この本は、言語の文法をなるべくカバーする「参照文法」である。
Lojban is a rich language with many features, and an attempt has been made to discover the functions of those features. The word “discover” is used advisedly; Lojban was not “invented” by any one person or committee.ロジバンは多くの特徴を持つ言語で、特徴の持つ機能を「発見」する努力がな されていた。ロジバンは特定の個人やグループによって発明されたものではな い。
Often, grammatical features were introduced into the language long before their usage was fully understood. Sometimes they were introduced for one reason, only to prove more useful for other reasons not recognized at the time.文法機能が導入され、後になってその用法が理解されることがよくある。
By intention, this book is complete in description but not in explanation. For every rule in the formal Lojban grammar (given in Chapter 21), there is a bit of explanation and an example somewhere in the book, and often a great deal more than a bit.この本は説明ではなく記述である。21章に構文解析用の形式文法を掲載した。
In essence, Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the language, Chapter 21 gives the formal structure of the language, and the chapters in between put semantic bones on that formal flesh. I hope that eventually more grammatical material founded on (or even correcting) the explanations in this book will become available.
Errata: Wouldn't it make more sense to say "put semantic flesh on those formal bones"? jcowan Approved INCLUDED IN DAG-CLL2章で文法の概要を、21章で形式的な文法構造をしめし、その間の章は形式に対して意味論的な肉付けをする。
Nevertheless, the publication of this book is, in one sense, the completion of a long period of language evolution.この本の出版は、言語の完成を意味する。
With the exception of a possible revision of the language that will not even be considered until five years from publication date, and any revisions of this book needed to correct outright errors, the language described in this book will not be changing by deliberate act of its creators any more.ロジバンは、作者によって故意的に改変されることはもう無い。
Instead, language change will take place in the form of new vocabulary --- Lojban does not yet have nearly the vocabulary it needs to be a fully usable language of the modern world, as Chapter 12 explains --- and through the irregular natural processes of drift and (who knows?) native-speaker evolution. (Teach your children Lojban!)ロジバンの進化は、実用に耐える語彙を作り出すことと、自然な（語彙の）偏 移によってのみ起こる。
You can learn the language described here with assurance that (unlike previous versions of Lojban and Loglan, as well as most other artificial languages) it will not be subject to further fiddling by language-meisters.他の言語とは違い、いわゆる「言語専門家」による「改造」の心配無く学べる。
It is probably worth mentioning that this book was written somewhat piecemeal. Each chapter began life as an explication of a specific Lojban topic; only later did these begin to clump together into a larger structure of words and ideas.この本は、段階的に作られている。各章では一つのトピックについて説明して、 その後全体が大きな構造にまとまっていく。
Therefore, there are perhaps not as many cross-references as there should be. However, I have attempted to make the index as comprehensive as possible.相互参照はあまり無いが、索引を充実させた。
Each chapter has a descriptive title, often involving some play on qwords; this is an attempt to make the chapters more memorable.各章のタイトルは、言葉遊びになっているものがある。
The title of Chapter 1 (which you are now reading), for example, is an allusion to the book English As We Speak It In Ireland, by P. W. Joyce, which is sort of informal reference work about Hiberno-English. “Lojbanistan” is both an imaginary country where Lojban is the native language, and a term for the actual community of Lojbanspeakers, scattered over the world.１章は English As We Speak It in Ireland (P. W. Joyce) のもじりであり、 "Lojbanistan" とは Lojban を母語として話す人々の仮想的な国である。
3. What are the typographical conventions of this book?
Each chapter is broken into numbered sections; each section contains a mixture of expository text, numbered examples, and possibly tables.各章には節があり，その中には解説文、例文、表などがある。
The reader will notice a certain similarity in the examples used throughout the book. One chapter after another rings the changes on the self-same sentences:本書が独学用と参考用として使えるように特徴的な表記を取っている
1.1) mi klama le zarci I go-to that-which-I-describe-as-a store. I go to the store.
1.1) mi klama le zarci (私 ～へ行く 私が～と呼ぶ 店) (私は店へ行く)
will become wearisomely familiar before Chapter 21 is reached. This method is deliberate; I have tried to use simple and (eventually) familiar examples wherever possible, to avoid obscuring new grammatical points with new vocabulary.語彙の要因で新しい文法要素が分かりにくくならないように、なるべく簡単で 馴染みやすい例を意図的に使っている。
Of course, this is not the method of a textbook, but this book is not a textbook (although people have learned Lojban from it and its predecessors). Rather, it is intended both for self-learning (of course, at present would-be Lojban teachers must be self-learners) and to serve as a reference in the usual sense, for looking up obscure points about the language.「教科書」的ではないが、本書は教科書ではなく、独習および参照に使えるも のを意図している。
It is useful to talk further about Example 1.1 for what it illustrates about examples in this book. Examples usually occupy three lines. The first of these is in Lojban, the second in a word-by-word literal translation of the Lojban into English, and the third in colloquial English. The second and third lines are sometimes called the “literal translation” and the “colloquial translation” respectively. Sometimes, when clarity is not sacrificed thereby, one or both are omitted. If there is more than one Lojban sentence, it generally means that they have the same meaning.例文は３行から構成される。1行目はロジバン文で、２文以上の同一の意味のも のも含む。2行目は逐語訳・直訳、3行目は通常の訳である。
Words are sometimes surrounded by square brackets. In Lojban texts, these enclose optional grammatical particles that may (in the context of the particular example) be either omitted or included. In literal translations, they enclose words that are used as conventional translations of specific Lojban words, but don't have exactly the meanings or uses that the English word would suggest. In Chapter 3, square brackets surround phonetic representations in the International Phonetic Alphabet.角括弧で囲まれた語は、省略可であること意味している（IPAを表す時にも使 う）。
Many of the tables, especially those placed at the head of various sections, are in three columns. The first column contains Lojban words discussed in that section; the second column contains the grammatical category (represented by an UPPER CASE Lojban word) to which the word belongs, and the third column contains a brief English gloss, not necessarily or typically a full explanation. Other tables are explained in context表の構成は、ロジバンの単語、文法カテゴリ（大文字で表記）、語義・意味の ３列からなる。
A few Lojban words are used in this book as technical terms. All of these are explained in Chapter 2, except for a few used only in single chapters, which are explained in the introductory sections of those chapters.専門用語として用いられている「ロジバン用語」は、第２章の末尾のリストに て解説されている。
It is necessary to add, alas, that the examples used in this book do not refer to any existing person, place, or institution, and that any such resemblance is entirely coincidental and unintentional, and not intended to give offense.本書で使用している例は実際の人物・場所・組織とは関係なく、類似性は偶然 であり意図したものではない。
When definitions and place structures of gismu, and especially of lujvo, are given in this book, they may differ from those given in the English-Lojban dictionary (which, as of this writing, is not yet published). If so, the information given in the dictionary supersedes whatever is given here.gismu, lujvo の定義や配列構造は、英ロジ辞書（本書執筆時点で未出版）のも を優先する。
5. Acknowledgements and Credits
Although the bulk of this book was written for the Logical Language Group (LLG) by John Cowan, who is represented by the occasional authorial "I", certain chapters were first written by others and then heavily edited by me to fit into this book.本書のメイン著者は John Cowan （「私」）であるが、他の人が書い て私が修正したものがある。
In particular: Chapter 2 is a fusion of originally separate documents, one by Athelstan, and one by Nora Tansky LeChevalier and Bob LeChevalier; Chapters 3 and 4 were originally written by Bob LeChevalier with contributions by Chuck Barton; Chapter 12 was originally written (in much longer form) by Nick Nicholas; the dialogue near the end of Chapter 13 was contributed by Nora Tansky LeChevalier; Chapter 15 and parts of Chapter 16 were originally by Bob LeChevalier; and the YACC grammar in Chapter 21 is the work of several hands, but is primarily by Bob LeChevalier and Jeff Taylor. The BNF grammar, which is also in Chapter 21, was originally written by me, then rewritten by Clark Nelson, and finally touched up by me again.第２章は Athelstan, Nora Tansky LeChevalier, Bob LeChevalier によって書 かれた個別の文章を融合したものである。他には、Bob LeChevalier, Nora Tansky LeChevalier 、 Chuck Barton, Clark Nelson, Jeff Taylor などが貢献している。
The research into natural languages from which parts of Chapter 5 draw their material was performed by Ivan Derzhanski. LLG acknowledges his kind permission to use the fruits of his research. The pictures in this book were drawn by Nora Tansky LeChevalier, except for the picture appearing in Chapter 4, which is by Sylvia Rutiser.Ivan Derzhanski の自然言語研究の結果を第5章では使っている。本書の絵は Nora Tansky LeChevalier によるものである。
I would like to thank the following people for their detailed reviews, suggestions, comments, and early detection of my embarrassing errors in Lojban, logic, English, and cross-references: Nick Nicholas, Mark Shoulson, Veijo Vilva, Colin Fine, And Rosta, Jorge Llambias, Iain Alexander, Paulo S. L. M. Barreto, Robert J. Chassell, Ivan Derzhanski, Jim Carter, Irene Gates, Bob LeChevalier, John Parks-Clifford (also known as “pc”), and Nora Tansky LeChevalier. Nick Nicholas (NSN) would like to thank the following Lojbanists: Mark Shoulson, Veijo Vilva, Colin Fine, And Rosta, and Iain Alexander for their suggestions and comments; John Cowan, for his extensive comments, his exemplary trailblazing of Lojban grammar, and for solving the “manskapi” dilemma for NSN; Jorge Llambias, for his even more extensive comments, and for forcing NSN to think more than he was inclined to; Bob LeChevalier, for his skeptical overview of the issue, his encouragement, and for scouring all Lojban text his computer has been burdened with for lujvo; Nora Tansky LeChevalier, for writing the program converting old rafsi text to new rafsi text, and sparing NSN from embarrassing errors; and Jim Carter, for his dogged persistence in analyzing lujvo algorithmically, which inspired this research, and for first identifying the three lujvo classes.
Of course, the entire Loglan Project owes a considerable debt to James Cooke Brown as the language inventor, and also to several earlier contributors to the development of the language. Especially noteworthy are Doug Landauer, Jeff Prothero, Scott Layson, Jeff Taylor, and Bob McIvor. Final responsibility for the remaining errors and infelicities is solely mine.Loglan の創始者である James Cooke Brown および貢献者の Doug Landauer, Jeff Prothero, Scott Layson, Jeff Taylor, and Bob McIvor に感謝する。
6. Informal Bibliography
The founding document for the Loglan Project, of which this book is one of the products, is Loglan 1: A Logical Language by James Cooke Brown (4th ed. 1989, The Loglan Institute, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.) The language described therein is not Lojban, but is very close to it and may be considered an ancestral version. It is regrettably necessary to state that nothing in this book has been approved by Dr. Brown, and that the very existence of Lojban is disapproved of by him.Loglan の設立時の文書 Loglan 1: A Logical Language (James Cooke Brown, 4th ed. 1989, The Loglan Institute, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.) がベースである。ただし、当の本人は本書の内容および Lojban の存在 そのものを否定している。
The logic of Lojban, such as it is, owes a good deal to the American philosopher W. v.O. Quine, especially Word and Object (1960, M.I.T. Press). Much of Quine's philosophical writings, especially on observation sentences, reads like a literal translation from Lojban.ロジバンの論理は、Word and Object (W. v.O. Quine, 1960, M.I.T. Press) によるところが大きい。特に観察文についてはロジバンの逐語 訳によく似ている。
The theory of negation expounded in Chapter 15 is derived from a reading of Larry Horn's work The Natural History of Negation. Of course, neither Brown nor Quine nor Horn is in any way responsible for the uses or misuses I have made of their works.
Errata: Section 6, it says "Larry Horn's work The Natural History of Negation". It would appear that everyone else calls it A Natural History of Negation, by Laurence (R.) Horn. INCLUDED IN DAG-CLL (zort's fork at least) but needs approval15章の否定の論理は A Natural History of Negation (Laurence Horn, 1989, University of Chicago Press) から来ている。
Depending on just when you are reading this book, there may be three other books about Lojban available: a textbook, a Lojban/English dictionary, and a book containing general information about Lojban. You can probably get these books, if they have been published, from the same place where you got this book. In addition, other books not yet foreseen may also exist.読者が本書を読むころには、教科書、ロジ英辞書、ロジバン概説の本が利用できるようになっているかもしれない。
7. Captions to Pictures
8. Boring Legalities
This book is Copyright © 1997 by The Logical Language Group, Inc.Copyright © 1997 by The Logical Language Group, Inc.
Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this book, either in electronic or in printed form, provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.本書の複製・再配布は、この著作権およびライセンスを表示する限り認められる。
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this book, provided that the modifications are clearly marked as such, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.本書を改変し配布することは、この著作権およびライセンスを表示、変更点を 明示し、全体を同じライセンスの元で配布する限り認められる。
Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation that has been approved by the Logical Language Group, rather than in English.本書の翻訳の配布についても上記の改変と同じ条件であるが、本ライセンスを LLG によって認められた翻訳によって表示しても良い点が異なる。
The contents of Chapter 21 are in the public domain.第21章の内容はパブリック・ドメインである。